Vesicles Carry Cargo
Most molecules, including proteins, are too large to pass directly through membranes. Instead, large molecules are loaded into small membrane-wrapped containers called vesicles. Vesicles are constantly forming - especially at the plasma membrane, the ER, and the Golgi. Once formed, vesicles deliver their contents to destinations within or outside of the cell.
A vesicle forms when the membrane bulges out and pinches off. It travels to its destination then merges with another membrane to release its cargo. In this way proteins and other large molecules are transported without ever having to cross a membrane.
Some vesicles form with the help of coat proteins. Geometrically arranged coat proteins on the surface of the membrane help the vesicle to bud off.